Students engage in several investigations related to the density of liquids, solids, and gases. They apply new understanding about density to the design and construction of hot air balloons. They make informed predictions about the variables that may affect the launch of their homemade hot air balloons and test them. The finale is the “Got Gas?” rally where students display their balloons and use multimedia presentations to demonstrate the principles of density used in the construction of their hot air balloons.
View how a variety of student-centered assessments are used in the Density: Got Gas? Unit Plan. These assessments help students and teachers set goals; monitor student progress; provide feedback; assess thinking, processes, performances, and products; and reflect on learning throughout the learning cycle.
Present the Essential Question, How is science applied in the real world? Hold a general discussion on this question. Discuss properties of matter, such as color, shape, flexibility, strength, and as many other properties that students can brainstorm and why the properties might be important. Tell students that for the next few weeks, they will be investigating the property of density. Have them write everything they know about density and why density might be important.
Have students investigate specific properties of matter with the layered liquids lab (doc). In this lab, students layer mystery liquids and compare their relative densities. Give each team one set of equipment (see materials on the lab worksheet). The liquids are as follows:
Each group should have 5 ml of each unknown liquid. Directions for the students are given in the "Procedure" section on the lab sheet. (Note that this procedure can also be done as a teacher-only demonstration.)
Explain that students will move from comparing density to measuring the density of liquids. Have students complete the Density Lab* on the Internet (requires Macromedia Shockwave*) in groups or as a class. Be sure to make copies of handout 2 found on the Web site. Through this Internet exercise, students should make a connection between the Layered Liquids Lab and the Internet Density Lab. After the lab, discuss the Content Question, What are the relationships among mass, volume, and density?
Expand on the experiments from the Internet Density Lab by discussing operational definitions and how to calculate density using the How Dense? (doc) lab. Explain to students that they will measure the absolute densities of liquids from the Layered Liquids Lab. Note that the liquids are the same as those compared in the Layering Liquids Lab. Each group's lab setup requires 25 ml of each sample liquid. Discuss procedures and data collection in advance of the activity. Explain to student’s that a bar graph would be more appropriate for this type of data. Also, this would be a good opportunity to use a spreadsheet program to input the data and make various types of graphs. Students would quickly see what types of graphs are more revealing and useful.
Teach about the density of solids and have students complete a solids lab. Before beginning, ask students what they learned about comparing the density of fluids that might help them think about measuring the density of a solid. (Mass is determined by comparing an object of unknown mass to an object of known mass, using a balance scale.) Have students engage in a lab investigating the density of solids. The solids lab (doc) document details procedures for this activity. Students should be able to find the density of a variety of objects using the appropriate method by the end of this session. Note that students will need two cubes made from different materials (for example, steel and aluminum) and an irregular sample of either steel or aluminum to complete this lab.
Ask students, If you put hot and cold water together, what will happen? Discuss predictions and then do the following hot/cold density demonstration:
Ask students, what the explanation might be for what was observed. Have students write or discuss what ways temperature affects density. Show the class the Internet simulation Molecules in Motion* to demonstrate what happens to gas molecules under different temperatures. Discuss scientific modeling and explain how molecules have been modeled in different ways over time. Discuss density of gases as compared to solids and liquids.
Applying Density Concepts to Hot Air Balloons
Students are now ready to apply their knowledge about density in the construction of a hot air balloon. Present the Unit Questions: How does the density of specific matter affect the construction process? and What principles of density are applied in hot air balloons?
Divide students into small groups. Announce that the class will be hosting the “Got Gas”? Hot Air Balloon Rally. The students’ task is to construct hot air balloons that will give riders the smoothest and longest flight. The students will work in groups and research how hot air balloons work and which variables to consider when constructing balloons. Guide this activity with the balloon research (doc) worksheet. Have groups create a balloon name and list as many variables that affect flight time as they can. Discuss these variables as a class, and have students expand and modify notes accordingly.
Give each student an experiment data sheet (doc), and present the problem, What causes some hot air balloons to have longer flight times than others? Instruct students to discuss this within their groups, and write hypothesis and prediction statements. (Help narrow the choices of independent variables to those relating to balloon weight, temperature difference inside and outside the balloon, wind speed, and direction.) Have each group make a chart showing independent, dependent, and constant variables.
Instruct students to research the materials needed to build their balloons using the Internet sources listed. Students should consider the density of each of their chosen materials (such as straws, plastic sheeting, string, paper cups, and so forth) and provide a rationale for their choices. Have groups turn in a list of supplies needed to build their balloon and have those supplies ready by the next class or have students bring in their own supplies. A pattern (doc) of a hot air balloon is included as an example, or each group can find or make their own pattern.
Students are now ready for construction day. Explain that groups should document the density of each type of material used in their hot air balloon and the rationale for choosing the material. They should also describe how they used principles of density to ensure a long flight time and smooth ride.
Hold the “Got Gas?” Hot Air Balloon Rally! Assign each group a designated flight time. Flight is judged by time, integrity of materials, and smoothness of ride. Tell students to set up a data table and graph while waiting for flight times, and work on their presentations by drawing illustrations of their project to scan into later publications and/or taking pictures.
Share the student example slideshow (doc) and discuss the criteria for the presentations. Introduce the presentation rubric (doc) and keeping track brochure checklist (doc). Explain that students are to complete two presentation projects:
Have groups present their multimedia presentations and display their brochures. Have students self- and peer-assess their collaboration skills using the peer rubric (doc) and their presentations using the presentation rubric (doc).
Note: In addition to the student brochure and slideshow presentations, students may develop a class wiki* on the topic of density.
Students use the density test practice (doc) to review the concepts of the density lessons and prepare for the short-answer and practical exam (doc).
Present the Essential Question again, How is science applied in the real world? Use density as the focus this time. Encourage students to further investigate this question by researching other examples when knowing the density of matter is applied to other situations (such as density of gold to identify fool’s gold, packaging material, body density, all construction projects, and so forth).
A Teacher participated in the Intel® Teach Program, which resulted in this idea for a classroom project. A team of teachers expanded the plan into the example you see here.
Grade Level: 6-9
Subject: Physical Science
Topics: Properties of Matter
Higher-Order Thinking Skills: Analysis, Experimental Inquiry
Key Learnings: Density, Scientific Method
Time Needed: 4 weeks, 50-minute lessons, daily